Turkmenistan – formerly known as Turkmenistan is one of the Turkish states in Central Asia. It borders on Afghanistan to the south-east, Iran on the south and southwest, Uzbekistan on the east and north-east, Kazakhstan on the north and north-west and the Caspian sea on the west. Although it is rich in natural resources, in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum desert (black sand). The Turkmen government functions as a single party system.
Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces or welayatlar and a capital district. The provinces are divided into districts, which can be both counties and cities. According to the Constitution of Turkmenistan (Article 16 of the Constitution of 2008, Article 47 of the Constitution 1992), some cities may have the status of welaýat (province) or etrap (district).
It is one of the driest deserts in the world, some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.47 in). The maximum temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.0 ° C (118.4 ° F) and Kerki, an extreme inland city located on the banks of the Amu Darya River.
Most Turkmenistan citizens are Turkmen with ethnic minorities consisting of Uzbeks and Russians. Small minorities include Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis.
Turkmenistan is the official language of Turkmenistan (for the 1992 Constitution), although Russian is still widespread in cities as a “language of inter-ethnic communication”. Turkmen is spoken by 72% of the population, 12% Russian, Uzbek 9%, and other languages of 7%.
According to the CIA World Factbook, Muslims make up 89% of the population, while 9% of the population are followers of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the remaining 2% religion is reported as non-religious.
January 1 – New Year’s Day
January 12 – Memorial Day (in honor of the fallen in 1881 (January 12) to the diffusion of fortress Geok Tepe against the Russian troops)
19 February – the Day of the State flag
March 8 – Turchmene Women’s Day (coincides with International Woman’s Day)
March 20-21 – Nowruz Bayram, the national holiday of spring
First Sunday of April – “A drop of water – a golden bean” Festival
Last Sunday of April – Festival of turkish horse races
May 8 – The Day of Commemoration of the Heroes of World War II of the years 1941-1945
May 9 – Victory Day
May 18-19 – The Day of Rebirth, Unity and Poetry of Magtymguly
Last Sunday of May – Carpet Festival
June 27 -The Day of Employees in the sphere of Culture and Art (introduced in 2009)
Third Sunday of July – Galla Bayramy (wheat harvesting celebration)
Third Sunday of August – The Day of Melon Turchmeno
Second Saturday of September – Day of employees in the oil, gas, energy and geology industry
Second Sunday of September – Turkmen Bakhshi Day (celebrating folk singers)
6 October – Memorial Day and National Mourning (commemorating the victims of the 1948 earthquake destroyed Ashgabat)
October 27-28 – Independence Day
First Saturday of November – The Day of Health
Last November Domanica – Harvest Festival (Cotton Collection Celebration)
12 December – The Day of Neutrality and Students Day
Various data – Eid al-Fitr Eid-i-Ramazon – End of Ramadan
Various data – Eid ul-Adha Eid-i-Kurbon – It takes place 70 days after the end of Ramadan
Capital (and the largest city) – Ashgabat (37 ° 58’N 58 ° 20’E)
Official languages - Turkmen
Language of inter-ethnic communication – Russian
Government – Single-Party Presidential Republic
Independence – Declared on October 27th, 1991
Surface – 491.210 km2 (52nd) (Total) 188.456 sq mi
Water (%) – 4.9
Population – more than 5 million (112th)
Density – 10.5 / km2 (208th) (27.1 / sq mi)
Currency – Turkmen manat (TMT)
Time zone – TMT (UTC + 5)
ISO 3166 code – TM
Internet TLD – .tm
Dialing code – 993